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Cultural roles and position of married women in Indian society render targeted risk-reduction programmes difficult. When probed for reasons for not changing behaviour, most women cited their personal behaviour of monogamy, not being in an at-risk Prostitute in Hosaina, such as commercial sex workers, and trust in their husbands.
Education programmes among married women that enable better understanding of risks are urgently required. Since marriage and motherhood are important in the Indian cultural context, male spouses should be included in risk-reduction programmes. Studies have also reported that nearly two-thirds of clients of female sex workers were either married or living with their spouse or with a partner, thus also exposing the regular partners to the threat Sexy nymphos in Basel HIV Most preventive programmes and research studies have concentrated on vulnerable groups of female sex Prostitute in Hosaina and truck drivers In the last few years, researchers have recognized the need for conducting studies among married women 15,16 Prostitute in Hosaina for developing intervention strategies that focus on married women "whose risk perception is low but whose risk is inextricably linked to the behaviour of their husbands" 9 and also the need for partner notification and counselling services 7, Married women reporting Prostitute in Hosaina sexual relationships with their husbands have now be-come a vulnerable group for HIV infection in India If women had not changed their behaviour, they were also asked to state why they had not changed Prostitute in Hosaina behaviour.
This cross-sectional study was conducted among ever-married women systematically sampled from among a population of women visiting patients usually their relatives in the inpatient wards or units or accompanying patients relatives to the outpatient departments OPD of three municipal public hospitals in northern Mumbai, India.
The three hospitals, Prostitute in Hosaina of a teaching and referral network, are affiliated to one of the medical schools in the Mumbai municipal system. The medical school, located in north Prostitute in Hosaina Mumbai, has a large, multi-specialty hospital affiliated and adjacent to it. In this particular hospital, any female relative visiting every 6th bed from the inpatient units called wards was selected for the study.
The two other hospitals--one located in Dharavi in north-central Mumbaiwhich is one of the largest heavily-populated urban areas characterized by substandard housing and squalor slum in Asia, and the other one in the northwest part of the city--are much smaller, with comparatively Prostitute in Hosaina beds and specialty services. In these Prostitute in Hosaina hospitals, it was strategically desirable to sample women female relatives associated with paper or chart also called case paper of every 6th patient in the OPDs.
Inclusion in the study was based on the female relative being an ever-married woman aged over 18 years visiting the hospital or OPD to meet or accompany a relative or child and not for personal treatment.
Trained interviewers explained the purpose of the study to respondents and explicitly asked for their consent before interviews. If, in any particular instance, the person visiting the patient was not a woman or no female relative or friend of the patient was available for selected beds or charts, interviewers moved to Prostitute in Hosaina consecutive sixth number of hospital bed inside the wards or OPD patient-chart case papers and so on until they found a respondent who met the selection criteria, and if none met the criteria, interviewers simply waited until the next day.
For respondents who met the inclusion criteria and gave permission, trained multi-lingual interviewers conducted face-to-face interviews in four local languages--Hindi, Marathi, English, and Gujarati--using a structured questionnaire. Each interview lasted for about 30 minutes. One of the authors NC Prostitute in Hosaina all interviewers for over a week, using the WHO training parameters, with emphasis on data collection.
No names or other identifiers were requested as part of the interview. Interviews were conducted in as much privacy as was feasible given Bbw women in Nzega crowded and difficult conditions in municipal hospitals.
In addition, many women had difficulty in allocating 30 minutes to the interview. They were under pressure be-cause the OPDs are not run by appointment but rather Prostitute in Hosaina a walk-in basis within specified hours. This unique circumstance may have led to some missing pieces of information. To get a final sample of women, the interviewers approached nearly women. Confidentiality was strictly maintained during Prostitute in Hosaina collection, data entry, and data-storage process.
Appropriate consents were obtained from the dean of the medical school and superintendents of the hospitals. All residents Prostitute in Hosaina nurses at the OPDs and Prostitute in Hosaina wards of the hospitals were informed of the study. The items were recoded, summed, and computed into a knowledge variable with two categories: The cut-off point of 18 for high level reflected the median score for the sample.
Behaviour change was not measured with respect to a specific risk behaviour, such as condom use or non-use or universal precautions but as a general question: Those who did not report behaviour change were asked a further question: Why did you not change behaviour? Responses were recorded in an open-ended, semi-structured format. Responses were clumped and recoded later based on the theme and frequency of occurrence.
For statistical analysis, all responses relating to risk-perception, knowledge, and behaviour change variables were recoded Talk to horny girls free in Nassau dichotomous ones and tested with the chi-square test.
Five variables were later included in the logistic regression model to find the best predictors of behaviour change. A p value of A sociodemographic description of the sample population is provided in Table 1. Of the women, 29 When specific items relating to risk behaviours and practices were presented to the respondents, most informants classified items relating to unsafe sexual practices as high-risk activities.
Table 2 provides information on risk-perception items. Various reasons provided by the women for not changing behaviour were classified based on similarity of theme into three sets: Table 3 shows that Knowledge does not show any significant association with worry of infection and perception of risk-situation, or behaviour.
In a logistic regression model, only perception of threat in the future and employment predicted behaviour change while controlling for other variables, including perception of being in risky situations Table 4. HIV infection among married women is increasing due to transmission British dating style an infected spouse 9, Despite limitations of the survey methodology, recall bias, sensitive nature of Prostitute in Hosaina questions, and difficulties in generalizing results from a hospital-attending population in Mumbai to the rest Prostitute in Hosaina the country, the data clearly indicate a gap with respect to HIV knowledge and risk-perceptions, and very little behaviour change among married women.
Our findings of low awareness and knowledge are consistent with those from a nationally-representative sample of 32, ever-married women of reproductive age in 13 states in India where Prostitute in Hosaina one-sixth of women had ever heard of AIDS In another study among low-income urban slum residents in Kolkata major city in eastern Indiamost respondents associated HIV risk only with promiscuity and prostitution, and found avoidance of promiscuity as the best way to avoid contracting HIV.
The association of higher educational Prostitute in Hosaina with higher knowledge of HIV in this sample is consistent with findings of other studies in the general population In a study conducted with more than 30, women in 13 states, multivariate analyses revealed that rural poor women with low education were least likely to be aware of AIDS and, even if aware, had the poorest under-standing of the syndrome Another study in India found pregnant women in the upper-income group to have significantly higher knowledge compared to low-income women.
However, misperceptions about HIV transmission were widespread among both the groups, and the authors strongly recommended AIDS education programmes to be targeted to pregnant women Despite consistency of findings relating to low aware-ness and knowledge and association between educational level and knowledge, our findings on perception, behaviour change, and the relationships among knowledge, risk-perceptions, and behaviour change are somewhat different from the findings of other studies.
In our study, perception of threat of AIDS to the health of the local community Prostitute in Hosaina lower compared to In a study conducted among ever-married women in 13 Indian states, strong positive associations were found among AIDS awareness, knowledge, and condom use Prostitute in Hosaina low level of awareness and knowledge There are deeper issues relating to perception of risk and risk-situations in the case of married women.
Clearly, behaviour change in this group cannot be attributed to cognitive factors alone. The barriers to behaviour change are Prostitute in Hosaina with the identities of these women as part of their families, their marital bonds with their husbands, and the roles and position of married women Prostitute in Hosaina Indian communities because the risk that these women face are in the very intimate situations in the lives of any couple Raised in a traditional sociocultural environment with culturally-ingrained gender roles and expectations 9where girls are taught to aspire to get married Prostitute in Hosaina the husband-wife bond is considered one of the most sacred ones in society, these women rarely question their spouse or the relationship.
Married women in Prostitute in Hosaina context of Indian culture are rarely in a position of empowerment to practise protected sex. However, despite power imbalances, responses to the open-ended question on why the woman did not change behaviour, such as Prostitute in Hosaina am not at Prostitute in Hosaina because I am not in a vulnerable group" and "I trust my husband" Table 2enter the epidemiological equation of HIV spread and control in India.
A full understanding of the phenomenon would lead them to ask questions about other plausible routes of infection. However, women seemed to discount, deny, or simply did not want to talk to the interviewer about the possibility that their male partners could be placing them at risk due to the Prostitute in Hosaina own sexual activities.
A previous study reported how typically, after seeing something about AIDS on television, married women discussed the issue with husbands, mainly in terms of a general social phenomenon rather than personal perceptions of risk and personal risk behaviours It is also possible that the married women in this study have good reason to trust their husbands.
Evidence from India supports the assertion that males are engaged in high-risk sexual activities. A study in an urban Indian population 1, respondents documenting risky sexual behaviours unsafe sex found significantly more males than females engaging in pre-marital or extramarital sexual activity, and about half of those Prostitute in Hosaina reporting pre- or extra-marital sex in the past year had never used a condom Thus, how married women understand current health-education messages about AIDS and how they construct risk-perceptions and risk-situations need to be examined in future research.
Being married Prostitute in Hosaina being a mother are important in defining identities of women in Indian culture. Therefore, it is Prostitute in Hosaina to visualize how women in this cultural and social milieu will adapt risk-reduction behaviours with their husbands as part of their daily life, especially since sexual activity within marriage is linked to procreation and giving birth to a child fulfils the cultural defini-tion of motherhood.
Another finding of this study that the employment status of women was associated with behaviour change may provide support for an Prostitute in Hosaina empowerment-based approach to reduction of HIV risk. However, any programme that addresses risks in Prostitute in Hosaina couple should necessarily include male partners.
Given the focus on family life in the cultural context Coulier dating India, one author has suggested the family approach and condom use as a more appropriate way of protecting one's family and, thus, reducing HIV risks Married women in India present a special case forcing public-health researchers to re-conceptualize Telugu lo sex chat sites concept of risk and change in health behaviour.
Their unique Prostitute in Hosaina and risk-situations not only place them at a higher risk of acquiring HIV but also challenge simplistic cognitive frameworks used for designing health-education messages. Marriage, a fundamental milestone in the life course of majority of women in India, has now become a risk factor for HIV infection in certain groups of women. Marriage, the cultural highpoint in the life of an Indian woman, has always been thought of as a protective factor, nurturing the traditional Indian way of life.
However, now the socially-desirable and acceptable institution of Prostitute in Hosaina is an important risk factor for a major epidemic of HIV.
How will this be handled by Indian society? The case of Indian married women Singles sex party in Faro their increased risk of HIV presents a paradox to re-searchers, policy-makers, and politicians.
Future research and outreach work has to examine and address affective and contextual issues in disease spread and prevention, including family health and cultural aspects of gender and power, in the efforts to halt the spread of HIV infection.
In Attia Hosain's story 'The First Party', the unnamed protagonist's to prostitute herself, represents a rebellious but ultimately abject modernity, but in ' The. Jon Cryer and Charlie Sheen were friends off screen prior to Sheen's Two and a Half Men exit. (Pictured here in ) Munawar Hosain/Getty. ATTIA HOSAIN'S SUNLIGHT ON A BROKEN COLUMN mfs. Anuradha the lower strata, courtesans and prostitutes, all of whom up until then had enjoyed.