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Spatial and temporal variation of fish assemblage associated with aquatic macrophyte patches in the littoral zone of the Ayapel Swamp Complex, Colombia. The purpose of the present study was to examine spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure associated with aquatic macrophytes in the littoral zone of the ASC. Specimens were caught between January and Februaryover four limnimetric moments, using both cast net and seine net.

Data on the temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and dissolved oxygen was recorded for the characterization of the water mass in the sites. A total of 34, specimens from 44 species were collected.

The Looking for fwb in Ayapel of the fish communities that inhabit aquatic macrophyte patches in the littoral region of the ASC may be related to the availability of suitable habitat in structural terms, that probably supports a more abundant and varied wildlife.

Swamps do not always offer ideal conditions for the fish fauna to grow Lopes et al. However, the riparian zones, areas of high biodiversity and diversity of environmental processes, have a wide range of influences on swamp habitat. At the same time, aquatic plants increase Looking for fwb in Ayapel spatial complexity of these ecosystems, favoring the presence of numerous fish species Pelicice et al. Both Eichhornia spp populations reach their growth peak during the period of high waters.

Extensive average m length and dense patches of Eichhornia spp floating and rooted are located along the littoral zone of ASC, providing a biotope that is used by a great diversity of organisms. Looking for fwb in Ayapel structural simplicity of the root system of E. The hypothesis stated is that if the fish assemblage associated with the pleuston in the littoral area of the ASC is influenced by changes in the water level, which in turn induce changes in the physicochemical conditions, the food supply, and flow patterns in the system, then fish assemblages will show a spatial heterogeneity evidenced by significant differences in its composition and its characteristics.

The swamp complex is connected to the San Jorge River in the lower part of the basin Figure 1. There are two well-defined seasons: Looking for fwb in Ayapel shallow system has its own hydrological system and has marked changes in the flooded area Eight sampling campaigns 8 days eachwere performed over four limnimetric moments between January and February Table 1.

The specimens were collected in six randomly chosen sectors located on the eastern area of the ASC, where Both the cast and seine net had a mesh of 10 mm. During each campaign in each sector, thirty attempts with the cast net and three with the beach seine were made both near the outer edge and below pleuston patches dominated by Eichhornia spp.

Fish capture was conducted from 6: The fish was counted and their individual total length mm and weight g measured. The identification was made following EigenmannDahl and Maldonado-Ocampo et al. Similarly, the migratory habits, economic Looking for fwb in Ayapel, and degree of threat to the species was identified Usma et al.

When the fish capture took place, measurements of water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH and dissolved oxygen were recorded in the pleuston interstitial area at a depth of 30 cm.

Fish composition, richness S and numerical abundance N were determined for presence and absence during the day in four limnimetric moments and in six sectors of the ASC. To establish the relationship between the fish abundance and the physicochemical variables, multivariate statistical analysis was performed using the CANOCO 4. In order to reduce the influence of less abundant species, the analysis of the abundance matrix was limited to the most abundant species so that negligible weighting was avoided.

To verify the existence of a temporal or spatial Looking for fwb in Ayapel between species and abiotic samples, the Looking for fwb in Ayapel matrix was submitted to Detrended Canonical Correspondence Looking for fwb in Ayapel DCCA and the gradient length was estimated. As the gradient length in DCA was short 1. The RDA results were presented graphically in a plot of two-dimensional array. A total of 34, specimens representing 10 orders, 25 families and 44 species were collected.

The largest specimen captured belonged to the species Sternopygus aequilabiatus and had a standard length of mm. The smallest specimen, Poecilia Looking for fwb in Ayapelhad a standard length of 9 mm. Following the definition of Mojica et al. Oreochromis sp, Oreochromis niloticus and Trichopodus pectoralis 6. In addition, the samples include, in accordance with Usma et al. Spatial consistency analysis indicated that 30 species were considered constant, 16 of which were present in all sectors.

Seven species were defined as accessory, and a further seven species were defined as accidental Table 2. The fish assemblage was characterized by the presence of few species e. Characiformes was the dominant order, constituted by 17 species and accounting for This was followed by the by the Siluriformes, with 12 species and accounting for 3.

Cichliformes and Amherst dating in Lod presented five and four, respectively, accounting for 9. Characidae accounted for a higher percentage of captures Characidae and Curimatidae, accounted for similar percentages of biomass At the species level, contributions to fish capture and biomass were as follows: These species accounted for Specific richness showed a temporal pattern where the greatest number of species were captured in the LW period 36 species while in the HW period Women nude in Szczecin 27 species were recorded.

During the study, the species diversity H' registered was 3. In temporal terms, diversity varied between 2. Spatially, diversity varied between 3. Temporarily, the change in the water level showed an effect on water quality.

Spatially, the water level affected the water quality. Dissolved oxygen was the variable that most influenced the estimated differences between sectors. Temporary homogeneity remained constant in However, this correlation was not significant when each variable was considered separately: Through the RDA, multiple regression coefficients between environmental variables were found.

Coefficients were lower than 0. The pH clearly identified the second axis with a negative gradient Nevertheless, the important contributions of oxygen 0. In the third axis, conductivity was the variable that contributed the most 0. On this axis the contributions of temperature and oxygen, which influenced negatively Presence in captures of the Characiformes and Siluriformes orders reveal a marked contrast.

The behavior in Looking for a naughty girl in Freeport daily activities of fish varies among the different orders. Siluriformes order mostly exhibits a nocturnal habit Pohlmann et al. The plasticity in the patterns of daily activity exhibited by these orders evidences a temporary segregation in the daily activities of the fish that interact with the pleuston communities of the ASC.

Characids represented about half of the total number accounted for by the Looking for fwb in Ayapel. This trend has also been described for areas of the Neotropical floodplain Araujo-Lima et al. The apparent differences in the captures of Characiformes and Gymnotiformes, the dominant orders in the assemblage, were reduced significantly in the case of families where characids predominated in relation to sternopygids. Studies in patches of floating aquatic vegetation in the Amazon basin show how Looking for fwb in Ayapel are an important component of the nocturnal icthyological fauna associated with plants Crampton, The fish assemblage interacting with floating aquatic plants in the littoral area of the ASC was dominated by opportunistic-omnivore species Aguirre et al.

However, within the group of specialist fish, Cyphocharax magdalenae stood Looking for fwb in Ayapel as the major contributor to captured biomass. Nevertheless, this species had a low numerical abundance. The contribution of Cyphocharax magdalenae to biomass was probably a sign of the permanent availability of food originating from the pleuston organic matter and the detritus Azevedo et al.

The contribution of Cyphocharax magdalenae to captures was higher than Looking for fwb in Ayapel recorded for Prochilodus magdalenae and Curimata mivartiitwo detritivorous commercial species. In addition, the contribution of Cyphocharax magdalenae to captures could be considered as an indicator of the ecological role that this species has on the function of the ASC. This species might participate in nutrient cycling and energy flow through the detritivorous pathway Araujo-Lima et al.

The high values estimated for diversity 3. This explains the high Looking for fwb in Ayapel of species and their persistence Looking for fwb in Ayapel time. Uniformity of the fish assemblage structure in different sectors of the ASC where the environmental conditions were heterogeneous is associated with the pleuston communities. Likewise, the assemblage similarity between aquatic habitats is Looking for fwb in Ayapel with the predominance of generalist fish species that contribute to spatial uniformity.

In contrast to the spatial similarity of the fish assemblage structure, significant differences estimated for the attributes of the assemblage between limnimetric moments showed variability in composition and structure over time in a habitat where environmental conditions varied temporally depending on the hydrological cycle.

These differences relate to the coverage of aquatic macrophytes in the Adult fun in Asyut area of the ASC and the supply of resources associated with variations in the water level Neiff et al. Similarly, assessed variables including the water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen did not significantly affect the association of captured fish in the vegetated littoral zone of a swamp located in the flood plain of the Magdalena River Arango-Rojas et al.

These results are consistent with the results obtained in this study, where the temporal and spatial distribution of fish assemblage structure interacting with the floating plant Looking for fwb in Ayapel in the littoral area of the ASC was not related to any of the physicochemical variables evaluated separately Figures 2A and 2B.

Considering this, it is probable that, in addition to the combined effect of the variables analyzed and the adaptations of the fish that allow them to successfully deal with cyclical disturbances, the stable environmental conditions in the pleuston interstitial area help in maintaining the similarity of the fish assemblage structure in the ASC.

In conclusion, the hypothesis is rejected. These results are important in ecosystems where riparian vegetation is replaced by exotic grasses that grow in large areas, reducing the availability of suitable habitats for the fish fauna. In attention to the bonds between fish and aquatic vegetation, it is urgent to implement environmental management policies to rehabilitate degraded environments of the ASC.

The recovery of the riparian vegetation with native species such as Symmeria paniculata would improve environmental conditions, considering the ecological functions of this species in the ecosystem. This would contribute to maintaining fish communities that are vital to the ecological health of this important aquatic environment, and to the conservation of biodiversity and fishery resources essential for the people of this region.

The Doctoral program in environmental engineering, Limnology line, of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Antioquia allowed for interdisciplinary work. The Faculty Cock sucking in Maizuru Agricultural Sciences supported this educational process. Fishermen provided their effort and commitment in field activities.

Carlos Looking for fwb in Ayapel and Dominic Higgins contributed and collaborated in the transcription process of this document. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, vol. Universidad de Antioquia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Energy sources for detritivorous fishes in the Amazon.

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