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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Basta Werbeagentur, Steffi Riemann Titelfotos: Spain and its Internal Others. The reverse relationship, i. Historians were called to replace the single and propagandistic interpreta- tion of that period, imposed by the communist regime, with professional recon- structions. Yet, in Romania, twenty years after the Revolution ofnot much has been achieved as compared to other former communist countries.

The main- stream opinion on historical craftsmanship in Romania places the discipline in the 19th century: As the official records from the communist epoch are not entirely available for research, the monographs covering this period of recent history authored by genuine professionals are still scarce. At the same time, the Romanian audience, whose interest in the com- munist period did not vanish, has been exposed to a diversity Cock sucking in Nelson private versions of that particular past.

The present study focuses on the various forms of re- membering communism that emerged in the post-communist public sphere, defines the major vectors of memory responsible for shaping the public opinion, and analyzes their specific ways of dealing with the recent past. Different repre- sentations of the past do coexist. However, there is a dominant view on the communist past, which, these authors argue, represents a reflection of the cul- tural and societal syndrome generated by a traumatic relationship with that past.

It argues that in post-communist Romania, the particularities of the pre regime, the nature of the revolution, as well as the post political developments made amnesty impossible and amnesia undesirable. As the political and societal cleavages were cut along the dichotomy communists vs. Consequently, any reconstruction of the recent past that aimed to be publicly accepted as legitimate must have reflected this political as well as civic anti-communist ethos.

Some vectors of memory are genuine carriers of their own lived experiences, while others are rather makers of memory that promote publicly representations of the past that originate not in their own recollections, but in those of other groups. Accordingly, these authors stress that remembering communism has to do also with conscious or nonconscious forms of legitimation related to the post-communist political confrontations.

The third part Home alone and wanting in Pitesti this study analyzes the main narratives on the origins, nature and demise of communism in Romania, as they emerged from corroborating the private versions of history advocated by the above-mentioned vectors of memo- ry.

The dominating view maintains that it was a repressive regime established by a tiny local group backed by the Soviet Union and dominated, at least in the beginnings, by activists of Jewish and Hungarian origin. Furthermore, the argu- ment reads, the small communist sect survived for more than four decades due to the powerful secret police Home alone and wanting in Pitesti created, which suppressed in status nascendi any attempt at rebelling against it. Quite the contrary, the collapse of communism in Romania represents a most controversial event that still divides the society.

In the fourth part, these authors illustrate that the issue of continuity with the communist past practically hampered the formula- tion of a coherent representation of the events.

This is not to say that in post Romania this subject provoked a real debate. It was rather a dialogue of the deaf, materialized in parallel stories, supported by different carriers of memory.

However, the controversial nature of the Revolution of and its widespread perception as an incomplete break with the past contributed by default to the emergence, persistence and ultimately hegemony of the above mentioned representation of Romanian communism. In other words, if the revolution did not fulfill its anti-communist goals and thus did not succeed in leaving behind the dictatorial past, then public discourses accomplished that by reiterating constantly anti-communist representations of the past.

This study is based on a large variety of sources, ranging from articles in the media to personal recollections, from literary works to collections of Home alone and wanting in Pitesti documents, as well as from academic studies to feature films.

Historical writings represent a rather modest category among the consistent body of post-commu- nist publications that concentrate on the issue of remembering communism. The works of fiction, especially pieces of literature inspired by the communist period, are also marginal sources for this study, since such writings were not only less numerous, but also less popular with the public after The most substantial category of sources addressed is that of personal accounts, such as memoirs, diaries, interviews, and various testimonies or thematically oriented recollections.

These writings authored by laymen are Home alone and wanting in Pitesti only the most numerous, but also more important than profes- sional writings for the purpose of Home alone and wanting in Pitesti study.

Although interest in historical works related to the recent past still exists among the educated strata, common knowledge about this controversial period of the recent past is rather shaped by certain private versions of history coming together due to their prominence in the media.

Personal accounts, just like literary works or movie scripts, are not only read as sources for a history of communism, but also as testimonies that more often than not tell more about their authors and the time of their creation than about the period they recollect.

However, for the purpose of this study, historical writings are also analyzed as narratives influenced by the current dom- inant public Home alone and wanting in Pitesti of Romanian communism.

In short, all sources have been also regarded as forms of memory and mis-memory of communism that reveal the symptoms of a particular post-communist cultural and societal syn- drome. The analysis of these sources illustrates that in Romania the communist ep- och is mostly remembered as a period of sheer terror and widespread repression, during which the Romanians suffered and tried adamantly to resist.

Such recol- lections do convey a part of national memory that must be urgently recuperated. The many victims deserve to be honored, while the few heroes deserve to be praised. The wrongdoers must be punished accordingly. Nonetheless, the largest majority of the Romanians that went out of communism in could not be placed in either of these categories.

Moreover, the recollections of the commu- nist past made public so far do not cover their lived experiences as well. The representation of Romanian communism centered on sufferings and resistance reflects a morally correct attitude towards the past that has a necessary therapeu- tic dimension in a post-dictatorial society.

Hope and Mem- ory. Reflections on the Twentieth Century. History and Memory in France since Such groups, although not the only vectors of memory in post-communist Romania, had a crucial importance for the purpose of this study. Due to their prominence in media and prestige among educated strata of the population, they succeeded in imposing their own representation of communism as being the legitimate form of collective memo- ry, while Chat cam grecee the other forms of representation remained marginal.

The above mentioned cultural and societal syndrome has been caused by the trauma of a nation whose self-appointed vectors of memory had to tackle a key question: Such a dictatorship, the argument goes, was based on the most effective secret police agency in East-Central Europe, which made the greatest number of victims.

In short, the Romanians only suf- fered under communism, while trying desperately to oppose it. It does enjoy neither the status of its model, KGB, subject of so many narratives among which the literary and the cinematic genre features high, nor that of its fraternal institution, Stasi, object of study for German historians educated in the spirit of Aufarbeitung the traumatic and criminal past of their country. It Home alone and wanting in Pitesti however generated a new entry in English dictionaries.

Consequently, the vision on commu- nism that victimizes almost all Romanians and implicitly externalizes guilt hard- ly represents a premise for the process of reconciliation with Home alone and wanting in Pitesti past.

Such vision triggered indeed solutions to pressing issues, such as punishing the perpetrators or recompensing the victims. Yet, the process of coming to terms with the past, these authors argue, is much more intricate. Such a process would also entail acknowledging and assuming the responsibility that each of the survivors had in perpetuating the former regime for decades. It will take much longer than ex- pected to reflect upon the issues of everyday cooptation by and implicit col- laboration with the defunct communist regime.

Coercion and Dissent in Romania Although this account focuses Home alone and wanting in Pitesti on the ex- ternal activity of the Romanian secret police, it is nevertheless at the origins of an entire range of stories about the uses and abuses of the methods characteristic to such institu- tion. This book reinforced not only the already existing image that the Romanian secret police was a criminal organization, but also that it acted always at the direct order of the General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Home alone and wanting in Pitesti himself.

See Pacepa, Ion Mihai: Chronicles of a Communist Spy Chief. The major symptom of the syndrome consists in the aforementioned mo- nopolization of the public sphere by a unique form of remembering commu- nism, while all other forms of memory remain marginal. Home alone and wanting in Pitesti more than the former nomenklatura, that omnipresent and omnipotent institution is perceived as the very essence of Romanian communism, and the sole capable of maintain- ing the illegitimate communists in power by transforming an entire innocent population into its victims.

Moreover, since the overwhelming majority of the Romanians must have been incapable of revolting against the regime due to the ubiquitous secret police, it must have been the Securitate that organized the Revolution of and then took advantage of it. Thus, by occupying all the prominent positions in the post-communist economic structures and political offices, it is largely believed that the Securitate and its still undisclosed collabora- tors continues to rule Home alone and wanting in Pitesti country, direct the transition to democracy according to their interests, Home alone and wanting in Pitesti deprive once again the Romanians of the benefits of lib- erty.

Accordingly, the very process of retribution for past wrong- doings focused solely on the Securitate, as it is shown below. Last but by no means least, an issue that deserves further elaboration is the name chosen to define the cultural syndrome addressed by the present study.

After Renault invested massively in the factory, which currently produces the low-budget car whose commercial name is still Dacia. It represents one of the very few success stories of communist modernization in Romania, if measured in terms of the convertibility from a pre industrial giant based on obsolete technology into a post-communist internationally competitive com- pany. In short, after a horrifying process of self-denial, the victims were turned into perpetrators just to end up Home alone and wanting in Pitesti together by being either repressed or totally reeducated.

Le livre noire du communisme. The first account of this horrible experiment was published by the Romanian diaspora in Spain, which included mostly members and supporters of the extreme right. Center of student reeducation]. It is interesting to note that the nucleus of the torturers recruited from among political prisoners was composed of former members of the Iron Guard, the Romanian interwar fascist party. The Chronicle of an assisted suicide]. See Courtois cf.

According to Patapievici, two theories were articulated by Romanian contemporary authors to explain the crisis. The second is defined as the thesis of failed modernity, and maintains that Home alone and wanting in Pitesti current crisis has its origins in the 19th cen- tury.

Neo-Communism As mentioned, Romanian communism is almost exclusively remembered as a period of great sufferings imposed upon an innocent population by Down to fuck in Norway Soviet- backed regime, which made extensive use of the terror through the secret police to crush any possible opposition. This vision corresponds to the dominant pub- lic representation of communism. How communism is actually remembered by the voiceless part of the Romanians, who do not express themselves publicly, represents Home alone and wanting in Pitesti equally fascinating topic, but one that requires a different type of inquiry.

Nevertheless, Home alone and wanting in Pitesti should acknowledge that the discourses in the public sphere certainly influence the views of the rest of the population, which ironi- cally enough, is no longer quasi-illiterate due to the communist educational policies.

Thus, communism only deepened an already existing crisis. See Patapie- vici, H. Anatomia unei catastrofe [The anatomy of a catastrophe]. The volume represent- ed a new edition of an earlier version published abroad in Ierunca was a Paris- based collaborator of the Romanian desk of Radio Free Europe and one of the most popular voices with the public within the Girl nude in Al Fujayrah due to his programs that criticized the communist literary establishment.

Slovenian dating site should be mentioned that the Romanian translation of The Black Book of Communism was published by the same Humanitas publishing house in collaboration with the Civic Academy Foundation that established the memorial dedicated to the victims of communism at Sighet. The following part reconstructs the par- ticular political and societal context in which the aforementioned public repre- sentation of communism was produced, reproduced and legitimated in the Prostitute in Iligan twenty years.

When communism finally collapsed on 22 Decemberit took most of the Romanians by surprise. Neither the ruling elite, from among whose mem- bers none was advocating a reformist path, nor the population at large, which, with few exceptions, did not openly protest against the regime prior to the days of the revolution, seemed to have planned it. On the one hand, the former com- munist elite did not give up power willingly, but it was smashed by a sudden popular revolt, hardly anticipated by a majority of the observers.

On Home alone and wanting in Pitesti other hand, because there was no organized opposition under communism to pave the way to the systemic changes ofthe second- and third-rank communist bureaucrats took over power and won the first post-communist free elections of This ad-hoc group had a very diverse membership, ranging from mar- ginalized apparatchiks and technocrats close to the party to non-aligned critical intellectuals and radical dissidents.

Yet, the initial coherence of this group quickly faded away. It became clear soon that the group of former apparatchiks gathered around Ion Iliescu was the most active and adroit in establishing the new power structures. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation.

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